Anti-Nutrient

Molecule:

solanine

Foods:

solanine

How to Neutralize:

Negative Effects:

Solanine is a green-colored pigmented glycoalkaloid and acts as natural pesticide, also known as α-solanine (Fig. 12.2B). α-Solanine is naturally produced in the plants of the solanaceae family and other plants such as potatoes, tomatoes, apples, bell peppers, cherries, and sugar beets. It is found in high concentrations at areal and the green part of the plant but also is found in potato tubers at low concentration (Shibamoto and Bjeldanes, 1993). Synthesis of α-solanine in potato tubers is stimulated by sunlight exposure, mechanical injury, and tuber aging. High concentration of α-solanine is unsafe for human consumption (Dalvi and Bowie, 1983; Jones, 1995) as it leads to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, cell membrane disruption. Manifestations include itchiness in the neck region, increased sensitivity called hyperesthesia, drowsiness, stomach pain, labored breathing, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (Shibamoto and Bjeldanes, 1993). A 1–5 mg/kg dose of α-solanine is highly toxic for humans, and 3–6 mg/kg doses leads to death (Tice, 1998).

Potato and Tomato

Solanine (8) from potato (Solanum tuberosum) and α-tomatine (9) from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are both steroidal saponins. They contribute to the protection of the plants against attack by phytopathogenic fungi. In vitro, both solanine and tomatine caused the disruption of model membranes, possibly by the insertion of the aglycone moiety into the lipid bilayer. Solanine is toxic and has fungicidal and pesticidal properties, and it is one of the plant’s natural defenses. It can occur naturally in any part of the plant, including the leaves, fruits, and tubers. Tomatine, which has fungicidal properties, is toxic and found in the stems and leaves of tomato plants. Some microbes produce an enzyme called tomatinase, which can degrade tomatine, rendering it ineffective as an antimicrobial.

Food Name
Food Group
Protein (g)
Fat (g)
Carbohydrates (g)
Calories
Starch (g)
SucroseG
Glucose (g)
Fructose (g)
Lactose (g)
Maltose (g)
Alcohol (g)
Water (g)
Caffeine (mg)
Theobromine (mg)
Sugar (g)
Fiber (g)
Calcium (mg)
Iron (mg)
Magnesium (mg)
Phosphorus (mg)
Potassium (mg)
Sodium (mg)
Zinc (mg)
Copper (mg)
Flouride (mcg)
Manganese (mg)
Selenium(mcg)
Vitamin A(IU)
Retinol (mcg)
Beta Carotene (mcg)
Alpha Carotene (mcg)
Vitamin E (mg)
Vitamin D (mcg)
Lutein and Zeaxanthin
Vitamin C (mg)
Thiamin (B1) (mg)
Riboflavin (B2)(mg)
Niacin(B3)(mg)
Vitamin B5(mg)
Vitamin B6 (mg)
Folate (B9) (mg)
Choline (mg)
Cholesterol (mg)
Saturated Fat (g)
Net Carbs
Tomatillos, raw
Vegetables and Vegetable Products
0.96
1.02
5.84
32
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
0
91.63
0
0
3.93
1.9
7
0.62
20
39
268
1
0.22
0.079
NULL
0.153
0.5
114
0
63
10
0.38
0
467
11.7
0.044
0.035
1.85
0.15
0.056
7
7.6
0
0.139
3.94
Peppers, hungarian, raw
Vegetables and Vegetable Products
0.8
0.41
6.7
29
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
0
91.51
0
0
3.53
1
12
0.46
16
29
202
1
0.3
0.115
NULL
0.204
0.3
816
0
465
16
0.48
0
502
92.9
0.079
0.055
1.092
0.205
0.517
53
7.7
0
0.046
5.7
Tomatoes, red, ripe, cooked, with salt
Vegetables and Vegetable Products
0.95
0.11
4.01
18
NULL
0
1.18
1.31
0
0
NULL
94.34
0
0
2.49
0.7
11
0.68
9
28
218
247
0.14
0.075
NULL
0.105
NULL
489
0
293
0
0.56
0
94
22.8
0.036
0.022
0.532
0.129
0.079
13
NULL
0
0.015
3.31
Peppers, sweet, red, sauteed
Vegetables and Vegetable Products
1.04
12.75
6.57
133
0
0.06
1.91
2.31
0
0
0
78.95
0
0
4.28
1.8
7
0.47
12
23
193
21
0.15
0.017
NULL
0.115
NULL
2760
0
1570
96
3.09
0
106
162.8
0.056
0.109
0.954
0.244
0.364
2
6.1
0
1.557
4.77
Peppers, hot chili, red, raw
Vegetables and Vegetable Products
1.87
0.44
8.81
40
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
0
88.02
0
0
5.3
1.5
14
1.03
23
43
322
9
0.26
0.129
NULL
0.187
0.5
952
0
534
36
0.69
0
709
143.7
0.072
0.086
1.244
0.201
0.506
23
10.9
0
0.042
7.31
Peppers, jalapeno, canned, solids and liquids
Vegetables and Vegetable Products
0.92
0.94
4.74
27
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
0
88.89
0
0
2.14
2.6
23
1.88
15
18
193
1671
0.34
0.146
NULL
0.114
0.4
1700
0
968
32
0.69
0
657
10
0.043
0.038
0.403
0.416
0.19
14
NULL
0
0.097
2.14
Potatoes, raw, skin
Vegetables and Vegetable Products
2.57
0.1
12.44
58
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
NULL
83.29
NULL
NULL
NULL
2.5
30
3.24
23
38
413
10
0.35
0.423
NULL
0.602
0.3
0
0
NULL
NULL
NULL
0
NULL
11.4
0.021
0.038
1.033
0.302
0.239
17
NULL
0
0.026
9.94
Eggplant, raw
Vegetables and Vegetable Products
0.98
0.18
5.88
25
NULL
0.26
1.58
1.54
NULL
NULL
0
92.3
0
0
3.53
3
9
0.23
14
24
229
2
0.16
0.081
NULL
0.232
0.3
23
0
14
0
0.3
0
36
2.2
0.039
0.037
0.649
0.281
0.084
22
6.9
0
0.034
2.88