Hoonah, AK, USA
gather% / fish % / hunt %
fat % / protein % / carb%
A rough estimate to help us understand how carnivorous and how ketogenic these people were before being exposed to western civilization
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About the Tribe
Tlingit 10% or less
Tongass National Forest, Alaska - We eat fish, deer, and berries "the food we eat is healthier than what we buy in the store" - Angoon.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=noxzUvnCR6Y - Dr Rosita Worl
While foraging and hunting are time-honored traditions in the Tlingit community and other Alaska Native cultures, the vast territory of Alaska makes it a challenge for people living remotely to access food easily and consistently—especially when weather conditions and geographical terrain add more challenge.
Importance of Animal Products
https://www.instagram.com/p/B1o1nfjg9Wk/ A Tlingit man says his father lived to 108 and his grandfather lived to be 122. He’s eating fatty seal meat. How is such old age possible eating meat? Tlingit people eat halibut, shellfish, seal, sea otter, salmon, herring, eulachon, deer, bear and other small mammals. They seasonally eat some plant foods like seaweed and wild berries like salmon berry, soap berry, and currants.
Isotopes show 9200 B.C Carnivore.
Archaeological Context. Shuká Káa.
The skeletal remains of Shuká Káa are dated to ∼9,200 ± 5014C y B.P. (12, 31) and were unearthed from On Your Knees Cave (Site 49-PET-408) located on northern Prince of Wales Island, AK. The spatial distribution of the remains within the cave suggests that the individual was not intentionally buried but instead, was deposited or redeposited in the cave, possibly as a result of accidental death and postdepositional taphonomic agents (3). The paleontological record of the southeast Alaskan coast suggests that large areas were refugia during the last glacial maximum, with continual use starting at about 17,200 y B.P. (32). Humans may have made use of the cave as early as 12,000 y B.P.
Isotope analysis of the bone collagen revealed a long-term diet of marine foods, with little sustenance derived from land sources (3). The stone tools occurring in the same stratigraphic level as the human remains but not directly associated with the individual were manufactured with materials originating from nearby islands and at least one mainland source. This evidence suggests that the population associated with Shuká Káa comprised maritime-adapted coastal navigators who participated in established trade networks between adjacent islands and the mainland (3).
A marine economy is indicated for most sites by faunal remains, ecological settings and isotope analysis of human remains from Prince of Wales Island (Dixon et al., 1997)
PET-408 is located on the northern end of Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska. Human skeletal remains from this site have been 14C dated to ca. 9800 BP. (Dixon et al., 1997). Isotopic values for the human bone indicate a diet based primarily on marine resources and d13C values for the human bone are similar to those obtained for ringed seal, sea otter, and marine "sh. These data indicate a diet based primarily on sea foods and that the marine carbon reservoir has a!ected the accuracy of the 286 E.J. Dixon / Quaternary Science Reviews 20 (2001) 277}299 14C determinations. In the Queen Charlotte Islands to the south, a ca. 600 year 14C di!erence in the regional marine and atmospheric carbon cycles has been documented by comparison of 14C determinations on wood and shell (Fedje, McSporran and Mason, 1996, p. 118). This suggests that the dates on the human remains from PET-408 should be corrected by subtracting ca. 600 14C years. Presuming this correction factor can be applied to Prince of Wales Island, the corrected age for the human is ca. 9200 BP