Historical Events

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The progression of atherosclerosis with further lipid accumulation in the deep layers of the tunica intima is shown by Nakashima, as well as the Grade-3 version.

May 27, 2007

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Early human atherosclerosis: accumulation of lipid and proteoglycans in intimal thickenings followed by macrophage infiltration

Heart Disease
Diet-Heart Hypothesis
Cholesterol

Figure 5 shows the progression of atherosclerosis with further lipid accumulation in the deep layers of the tunica intima. It also depicts the addition of macrophages in the latter stages — Grade 3 — of the progression of atherosclerosis.


Figure 5: This figure shows the further progression of atherosclerosis from Grade 2 fatty streak to Grade 3 PIT with foam cells. It shows lipid accumulation increases in the deep layers of the tunica intima (central column of panels) with the addition of macrophages (column of panels on the right). The column of panels on the left shows the histological changes corresponding with this lipid accumulation in the deep layers of the tunica intima. Reproduced from Figure 6 in reference 10.


Figures 4 and 5 clearly establish that cholesterol circulating within arteries cannot explain why the atherosclerotic plaque begins to develop deep within the highly cellular tunica intima, far removed from where LDL-cholesterol is circulating in the bloodstream.

The sole conclusion must be that Keys’ lipid hypothesis cannot explain these findings. Hence, these findings disprove the essential foundations on which Keys’ theories are based.