Low Fat / Low Cholesterol Study

Low Fat / Low Cholesterol Study

Recent History

January 1, 1945

Preliminary Survey of Dietary Intakes and Blood Levels
of Cholesterol and the Occurrence of Cardiovascular
Disease in the Eskimo

GreatWhiteOncomingSquare.jpg

Showing the Results of Analyses of Eskimo Foods - Ringed Seal, Bearded Seal, Walrus, Polar Bear, Mountain Sheep, Reindeer, Caribou, in terms of Blubber, Liver, Skin, Meat, Oil, Boiled Head and more.

The results of analyses of Eskimo foods are presented in Table 1. On the basis of nutritional surveys with individual food weighings in different families from four Eskimo settlements in Alaska and the above-mentioned results of cholesterol determinations in Eskimo foods, supplemented by figures available for the cholesterol content of nonEskimo foods (Okey, 1945; Pihl, 1952), the cholesterol intake of Eskimos has been estimated (Tables 2, 3). From these calculations it is observed that the mean caloric consumption of the 45 adult male and female Eskimos was about 2,700 calories, the fat consumption was 105 g and the mean cholesterol intake was roughly 340 mg daily, varying from 150 mg to 700 mg per day. It should be noted that these cholesterol figures may be considered as minimum values because several of the food items ingested could not be included in the calculation since the cholesterol content was unknown. It may also be noted that the cholesterol intake varies greatly from one Eskimo group to another, depending on the different dietary habits. Thus, it was observed that among the inland Eskimos, the Nunamiuts at Anaktuvuk Pass, some of the men consumed as much as 70 grams or more of boiled brain from mountain sheep in a single evening meal yielding almost 600 mg cholesterol from this food item alone. 


It is thus evident that some Eskimos have fairly high cholesterol intakes compared with healthy American white men, although the mean intake for the 45 Eskimos studied is in the order of 2.5 g per week (varying from 1 to 5 g) . This corresponds to the group of moderate habitual cholesterol intakes reported for normal American men (Keys, 1949) while in the Inland Eskimos the mean figure is in the order of 4 g cholesterol per week, which corresponds to the group of highest habitual cholesterol intakes for normal American men, reported by Keys (1949). 


Keys (1950) has estimated that the American diet varies with regard to cholesterol content from a low of 200-300 mg daily to 700-800 mg, depending on the food consumed. Gubner and Ungerleider ( 1949) have given the figure 200--360 mg for daily cholesterol intake on a mixed diet. 


It thus appears that the estimated mean figures for cholesterol intakes in Eskimos may be comparable to those of Whites on a mixed diet. 


The average figure for the daily fat consumption in the 45 Eskimo subjects reported here was only about 105 g (377 of the calories), while in a larger survey the average daily fat consumption in Alaskan Eskimos was 139 g (40 % of the calories). In normal white men living in Alaska the fat consumed represented 37.5 %( of the calories ingested. 


In the Eskimo subjects the mean serum cholesterol concentration was 203 mg per 100 ml (Table 4) which is about the same as is found in normal Whites. Thus L. J. Milch (personal communications) found an average level of 207 mg cholesterol per 100 ml serum in Whites 30-35 years old. 


On the other hand, the Eskimo serum concentration of Sf 12-20 lipoproteins was 20 mgl100 ml as against 28 mgl100 ml in Whites of similar age, observed by Milch (personal communications). For Whites under 25 years of age Milch found 24 mg/lOO ml, and for Whites 40-45 years of age 38 mg/l 00 m!.

July 28, 1956

Calorie intake in relation to body-weight changes in the obese.

GreatWhiteOncomingSquare.jpg

Professor Kekwick and Dr Pawan undertake study where they find that obese patients would lose weight so long as the calories consisted chiefly of protein and fat, and the carbohydrates were kept to a minimum.

https://www.scribd.com/doc/28131415/Kekwick-Pawan-1956-Lancet

https://sci-hub.tw/https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(56)91691-9/fulltext

MANY different types of diet have been successfully used to reduce weight in those considered obese. The principle on which most of them are constructed is to effect a reduction of calorie intake below the theoretical calorie needs of the body. Experience with these patients has suggested, however, that this conception may be too rigid. Many of them state that a very slight departure from the strict diet which can hardly affect calorie intake, results in them failing to lose weight for a time. Though it is realised that evidence from such patients is notoriously inaccurate owing to their approach to this particular condition, it is too constant a belief among them to be entirely discarded. Furthermore, most of the diets in common use not only restrict the intake of calories but also radically alter the proportions provided by protein, fat, and carbohydrate. In this country a healthy sedentary person may be supposed to consume some 2200 calories daily, made up of about 70 g. of protein, 60 g. of fat, and 350 g. of carbohydrate : protein supplies 12% of the calories, fat 24%, and carbohydrate 64%. On most reducing diets, however, the carbohydrate and fat will be restricted while the protein remains about the same ; and in a diet yielding 1000 calories protein may provide 30%, fat 37%, and carbohydrate 33%. Finally, Lyon and Dunlop (1932) observed that patients on isocaloric reducing diets lost weight more rapidly when the largest proportion of the calories was supplied by fat than when it was supplied by carbohydrate. Anderson (1944) attributed these findings to the different amounts of salt (causing water retention) in the diets used by these workers. More recently, Pennington (1951, 1954) has recommended high-fat diets in the treatment of obesity. It therefore seemed important to establish which factor has the greater effectrestriction of calories, or alteration in the proportions of MANY different types of diet have been successfully used to reduce weight in those considered obese. The principle on which most of them are constructed is to effect a reduction of calorie intake below the theoretical calorie needs of the body. Experience with these patients has suggested, however, that this conception may be too rigid. Many of them state that a very slight departure from the strict diet which can hardly affect calorie intake, results in them failing to lose weight for a time. Though it is realised that evidence from such patients is notoriously inaccurate owing to their approach to this particular condition, it is too constant a belief among them to be entirely discarded. Furthermore, most of the diets in common use not only restrict the intake of calories but also radically alter the proportions provided by protein, fat, and carbohydrate. In this country a healthy sedentary person may be supposed to consume some 2200 calories daily, made up of about 70 g. of protein, 60 g. of fat, and 350 g. of carbohydrate : protein supplies 12% of the calories, fat 24%, and carbohydrate 64%. On most reducing diets, however, the carbohydrate and fat will be restricted while the protein remains about the same ; and in a diet yielding 1000 calories protein may provide 30%, fat 37%, and carbohydrate 33%. Finally, Lyon and Dunlop (1932) observed that patients on isocaloric reducing diets lost weight more rapidly when the largest proportion of the calories was supplied by fat than when it was supplied by carbohydrate. Anderson (1944) attributed these findings to the different amounts of salt (causing water retention) in the diets used by these workers. More recently, Pennington (1951, 1954) has recommended high-fat diets in the treatment of obesity. It therefore seemed important to establish which factor has the greater effectrestriction of calories, or alteration in the proportions of protein, fat, and carbohydrate in the diet.


Discussion 


If these observations are correct, there seems to be only one reasonable explanation-namely, that the composition of the diet can alter the expenditure of calories in obese persons, increasing it when fat and protein are given, and decreasing it when carbohydrate is given. This is not surprising as regards protein, whose specific dynamic action has long been recognised. It is, however, surprising as regards fat, whose action in this respect seems to be even greater than that of protein. Direct confirmation of such altered metabolism is hard to obtain. The B.M.R., for example, is measured at a time of day and under .other conditions specifically designed to eliminate the effect of diet or reduce it to a minimum. In some patients the B.M.B. was measured at the beginning and at the end of each dietary period. Table vin shows that neither variation in calories nor variation of the composition of the diet with a constant intake of calories significantly changed the B.M.R. during these short dietary periods.


Summary 

1. Loss of weight can be successfully achieved in obese patients by numerous diets, most of which restrict calorie intake. At the same time almost all such diets alter the proportion of protein, carbohydrate, and fat as compared with the normal, restricting carbohydrate and fat in particular. It seemed desirable to investigate which factor was of the greatest importance in weight reduction-calorie restriction or alteration in the composition of the diet. 

2. The rate of weight-loss has been shown to be proportional to the deficiency in calorie intake when the proportions of fat, carbohydrate, and protein in the diet are kept constant at each level of calorie restriction. 

3. When calorie intake was constant at 1000 per day, however, the rate of weight-loss varied greatly on diets of different composition. It was most rapid with high-fat diets ; it was less rapid with high-protein diets ; and weight could be maintained for short periods on diets of 1000-calorie value given chiefly in the form of carbohydrate. 

4. At a level of intake of 2000 calories per day, weight was maintained or increased in four out of five obese patients. In these same subjects significant weight-loss occurred when calorie intake was raised to 2600 per day, provided this intake was given mainly in the form of fat and protein. 

5. No defect in absorption of these experimental diets occurred to account for the weight-loss. There was neither loss of body-protein stores nor of carbohydrate stores to a degree which significantly contributed to the reduction in weight. 

6. The weight lost on these diets appeared to be partly derived from the total body-water (30-50%) and the remainder from body-fat (50-70%). 

7. As the rate of weight-loss varied so markedly with the composition of the diets on a constant calorie intake, it is suggested that obese patients must alter their metabolism in response to the contents of the diet. The rate of insensible loss of water has been shown to rise with high-fat and high-protein diets and to fall with highcarbohydrate diets. This supports the suggestion that an alteration in metabolism takes place.

January 1, 1958

Nina Teicholz

Finnish Mental Hospital study

GreatWhiteOncomingSquare.jpg

Insignificant results and poor methodology don't seem to matter for Finnish Mental Hospital study which was "the best possible proof" that saturated fat is unhealthy.

URL

A third famous clinical trial that is cited again and again is the Finnish Mental Hospital study. I first heard about this study from a top nutrition expert who assured me that it was really “the best possible proof” that saturated fat is unhealthy.

In 1958, researchers seeking to compare a traditional diet high in animal fats to a new one high in polyunsaturated fats selected two mental hospitals near Helsinki. One they called Hospital K and the other, Hospital N. For the first six years of the trial, inmates at Hospital N were fed a diet very high in vegetable fat. Ordinary milk was replaced with an emulsion of soybean oil in skim milk, and butter was replaced by a special margarine high in polyunsaturated fats. The vegetable oil content of the special diet was six times higher than in a normal diet. Meanwhile, inmates of Hospital K ate their regular fare. Then the hospitals swapped, and for the next six years, Hospital K inmates got the special diet while Hospital N returned to their normal one.

In the special-diet group, serum cholesterol went down by 12 percent to 18 percent, and “heart disease was halved.” This is how the study is remembered and is the conclusion that the study directors, Matti Miettinen and Osmo Turpeinen, themselves drew. In a population of middle-aged men, they said, a diet low in saturated fats “exerted a substantial preventive effect upon coronary heart disease.”

But a closer look reveals a different picture. Heart disease incidence (which the investigators defined as deaths plus heart attacks) did go down dramatically for the men at Hospital N: there were sixteen such cases among men on the normal diet compared to only four on the special diet. But the difference found in Hospital K was not significant. Nor was any difference observed among the women. The biggest problem with the study, however, was that, like the subjects in the LA Veterans Trial, its population was a moving target. With admissions and discharges over the years, the composition of the groups changed by half. A shifting population means that an inmate in the group who died of a heart attack might have been admitted three days earlier and the death would have had nothing to do with his diet; and, vice versa, a patient who was released might have died soon thereafter but would not have been recorded in the study.

This and other design problems were so great that two high-level NIH officials together with a professor at George Washington University felt moved to criticize the study in a letter to The Lancet asserting that the authors’ conclusions were too statistically weak to be used as any kind of evidence for the diet-heart hypothesis. Miettinen and Turpeinen acknowledged that their study design was “not ideal,” including the fact that the study population was far from stable, but asserted in their defense that a perfect trial would be “so elaborate and costly . . . [that it] may perhaps never be performed.” Their imperfect trial, meanwhile, would have to stand: “we do not see any reason to change or modify our conclusions,” they wrote. The research community accepted this “good-enough” reasoning, and the Finnish Mental Hospital study earned a spot as one of the linchpins of evidence for the diet-heart hypothesis.


Nina Teicholz - Page 77

September 1, 1964

Epidemiologic Investigations in Relation to Diet in Groups Who Show Little Atherosclerosis and Are Almost Free of Coronary Ischemic Heart Disease

GreatWhiteOncomingSquare.jpg

Fat consumption varied wildly between different groups.

In 1964, F.W. Lowenstein, a medical officer for the World Health Organization in Geneva, collected every study he could find on men who were virtually free of heart disease, and concluded that their fat consumption varied wildly, from about 7 percent of total calories among Benedictine monks and the Japanese to 65 percent among Somalis. And there was every number in between: Mayans checked in with 26 percent, Phillippines with 14 percent, the Gabonese with 18 percent, and black slaves on the island of St. Kitts with 17 percent. The type of fat also varied dramatically, from cottonseed and seasme oil (vegetable fats) eaten by Buddhist monks to the gallons of milk (all animal fat) drunk by the Masai. Most other groups ate some kind of mixture of vegetable and animal fats. One could only conclude from thees findings that any link between dietary fat and heart disease was, at best, weak and unreliable. 

- Nina Teicholz - The Big Fat Surprise - page 56

January 1, 1969

GreatWhiteOncomingSquare.jpg

Dayton releases Los Angeles Veterans trial where seed oils replaced animal fats, but the seed oils caused cancer.

URL

Event Rich Text

Ancient History

Books

Life Without Bread: How a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Can Save Your Life

Published:

March 22, 2000

Life Without Bread: How a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Can Save Your Life

The Case for Keto: Rethinking Weight Control and the Science and Practice of Low-Carb/High-Fat Eating

Published:

December 29, 2020

The Case for Keto: Rethinking Weight Control and the Science and Practice of Low-Carb/High-Fat Eating