Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Recent History

January 1, 100

Total Dietary Regulation in the Treatment of Diabetes

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Aretaeus of Cappadocia (30–90 A.D.) is the second to describe diabetes and uses 'to run through' or 'a siphon' to explain how one urinates unceasingly until death.

Aretaeus of Cappadocia (30–90 A.D.), living under the emperor Nero, and writing in Ionian Greek, was the second to describe diabetes, and the first known to have called it by the name (to run through; a siphon). In a passage translated by Schnée", Aretaeus outlines some of the principal symptoms, the progressive course, and the fatal prognosis. He anticipates modern conceptions of a failure of assimilation, conversion of tissue into urinary products, and possible origin of some cases in acute infections. He was retrograde in treatment, for he advised a non-irritating diet of milk and carbohydrates, and hiera, nardum, mastix, and theriak (opium?sugar?) as drugs. He is commonly credited with being the first to regard diabetes as a disease of the stomach; but his vague notion of a disorder akin to ascites hardly entitles him to a claim upon this false idea which was productive of so much truth in the period from Rollo to Cantani.


“Diabetes is a strange disease, which fortunately is not very frequent. It consists in the flesh and bones running together into urine. It is like dropsy in that the the cause of both is moisture and coldness, but in diabetes the moisture escapes through the kidneys and bladder. The patients urinate unceasingly; the urine keeps running like a rivulet. The illness develops very slowly. Its final outcome is death. The emaciation increases very rapidly, so that the existence of the patients is a sad and painful one. The patients are tortured by an unquenchable thirst; they never cease drinking and urinating, and the quantity of the urine ex ceeds that of the liquid imbibed. Neither is there any use in trying to prevent the patient from urinating and from drinking; for if he abstains only a short time from drinking his mouth becomes parched, and he feels as if a consuming fire were raging in his bowels. The patient is tortured in a terrible manner by thirst. If he re tains the urine, the hips, loins, and testicles begin to swell; the swelling subsides as soon as he passes the urine. When the illness begins, the mouth begins to be parched, and the saliva is white and frothy. A sensation of heat and cold extends down into the bladder as the illness progresses; and as it progresses still more there is a consuming heat in the bowels. The integuments of the abdomen become wrinkled, and the whole body wastes away. The secretion of the urine becomes more copious, and the thirst increases more and more. The disease was called diabetes, as though it were a siphon, because it converts the human body into a pipe for the transflux of liquid humors. Now, since the patient goes on drinking and urinating, while only the smallest portion of what he drinks is assimilated by the body, life naturally cannot be preserved very long, for a portion of the flesh also is excreted through the urine. The cause of the disease may be that some malignity has been left in the system by some acute malady, which afterward is developed into this disease. It is possible also that it is caused by a poison con tained in the kidneys or bladder, or by the bite of the thirst-adder or dipsas.”



"Aretaeus’ writings were unknown in Europe until 1552. His aim in treating what was clearly type 1 diabetes was to overcome the  diabetes: the intense thirst, and to this end he began with a purge and followed it with a variety of mixtures to soothe the stomach."

Diabetes: The Biography

January 1, 100

Total Dietary Regulation in the Treatment of Diabetes

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A Roman named Aulus Cornelius Celsus describes diabetes 2000 years ago.

Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.) made no mention of any condition clearly recognizable as diabetes. A notion concerning the quantity of urine, in a passage translated by Richardson from the third book of the Epidemics,” is like that of Celsus, but the first known recognition of diabetes occurred at about the height of the Roman power. 


Aulus Cornelius Celsus (30 B.C.–50 A.D.) wrote as follows: 


“When urine, even in excess of the drink, and flowing forth without pain, causes emaciation and danger, if it is thin, exercise and massage are indicated, especially in the sun or before a fire; the bath should be infrequent, nor should one linger long in it; the food should be con stipating, the wine sour and unmixed, in summer cold, in winter luke warm; but everything in smallest possible quantity. The bowels also should be moved by enema, or purged with milk. If the urine is thick, both exercise and massage should be more vigorous; one should stay longer in the bath; the food should be light, the wine likewise. In each disease, all things should be avoided that are accustomed to increase urine.” 


In this compressed passage, Celsus gives the first description of diabetes, introduces an error (fluid output greater than intake) destined to endure eighteen centuries, and touches some modern treat ment. It is not known to what extent this knowledge was original with Celsus or handed down by predecessors. At any rate, the recog nition of the disease was so new that it had not yet received a name. 

https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=NExNAQAAMAAJ&hl=en&pg=GBS.PA3


Aulus Cornelius Celsus (c. 25 BC – c. 50 AD) was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia. The De Medicina is a primary source on diet, pharmacy, surgery and related fields, and it is one of the best sources concerning medical knowledge in the Roman world. The lost portions of his encyclopedia likely included volumes on agriculture, law, rhetoric, and military arts. He made contributions to the classification of human skin disorders in dermatology, such as Myrmecia, and his name is often occurring in medical terms about the skin, e.g., kerion celsi and area celsi.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aulus_Cornelius_Celsus

January 1, 150

Total Dietary Regulation

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Claudius Galenus makes errors in explaining diabetes which retards progress in knowledge for 1500 years.

Claudius Galenus (born 131 A.D.) saw two patients and introduced two ideas: first, that diabetes is a weakness of the kidneys, which can not hold back water and also are thirsty for fluid; second, that the urine consists of the unchanged drink. Galen's great authority maintained these errors for about 1500 years, and retarded progress in the knowl edge of diabetes.

January 1, 200

Total Dietary Regulation in the Treatment of Diabetes

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Tchang Tchong-king, the greatest of Chinese physicians, describes diabetes in the year 200.

Chronological order here shifts the narrative to the Far East. According to Iwai, the first oriental description of diabetes was given in the year 200 by Tchang Tchong-king, perhaps the greatest of Chinese physicians. “There is a disease called ‘the disease of thirst,’ in which polyuria is the characteristic symptom. One may drink as much as ten liters per day, which is recovered in the urine.”

January 1, 600

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A Chinese medical work of about the year 600 classifies four supposed groups of cases of diabetes.

A Chinese medical work of about the year 600 classifies four supposed groups of cases, and notes the symptoms of polyphagia, polydipsia, and polyuria. Still a later work mentions furunculosis.

Ancient History

Books

Cases of the Diabetes Mellitus: With the Results of the Trials of Certain Acids, and Other Substances, in the Cure of the Lues Venerea

Published:

December 1, 1798

Cases of the Diabetes Mellitus: With the Results of the Trials of Certain Acids, and Other Substances, in the Cure of the Lues Venerea

Diabetes mellitus and its dietetic treatment

Published:

January 1, 1876

Diabetes mellitus and its dietetic treatment

The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: With Observations Upon the Disease Based Upon One Thousand Cases

Published:

November 14, 1916

The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: With Observations Upon the Disease Based Upon One Thousand Cases

Dr. Bernstein's Diabetes Solution: The Complete Guide to Achieving Normal Blood Sugars

Published:

January 1, 1997

Dr. Bernstein's Diabetes Solution: The Complete Guide to Achieving Normal Blood Sugars

Diabetes Unpacked: Just Science and Sense. No Sugar Coating

Published:

August 1, 2017

Diabetes Unpacked: Just Science and Sense. No Sugar Coating

The Diabetes Code: Prevent and Reverse Type 2 Diabetes Naturally

Published:

April 3, 2018

The Diabetes Code: Prevent and Reverse Type 2 Diabetes Naturally